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Glutamine: Important?, what does it do for you?

Discussion in 'Nutrition & Supplements' started by HyPe, Dec 21, 2004.

  1. HyPe

    HyPe Well-Known Member

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    is glutamine an important supplement...
    how much will u benefit by incorporating it into your workout
    whjat does it do?
    when is the best time to take it?
    why do YOU personally take it and do you think it makes a difference.

    Thanks a lot, i know i sound like a gronk asking these but id love to know more about this for future supplements i may consider to purchase
     
  2. taffer

    taffer Well-Known Member

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    IMO glutamine is useless, 90% of it doesnt escape the gut, then most of it is oxidised in the liver to excreted

    you can get pleanty of glutamine through real foods
     
  3. krosspyder

    krosspyder Well-Known Member

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    Should You Worry About Glutamine Side Effects?



    In short, no. You shouldn't worry about Glutamine side effects, as studies have found it to haveno adverse side effects, and also because Glutamine naturally occurs in your body, it has no health risks. However, like all supplements, too much is never a good idea. Taking excessive amounts of L-Glutamine has led to upset stomachs, so you should follow the recommended dosages.

    So, that's it! On with the benefits!



    A Long List of L-Glutamine Benefits



    Are you supplementing L-Glutamine? If not, maybe you should consider it after reading the following benefits. Glutamine is a carbon and nitrogen donor and helps restore glycogen which restores energy. Glutamine is the most important component of muscle protein, and helps repair and build muscle.



    Here's a list of Glutamine Benefits:



    Glutamine has been linked to protein synthesis. It prevents your muscle from being catabolized (eaten up) in order to provide Glutamine for other cells in the body.


    Glutamine helps maintain cell volume and hydration, speeding up wound and burn healing and recovery.


    Glutamine benefits you by replenishing declining Glutamine levels during intense workouts.


    Research has shown Glutamine can help you produce growth hormone levels. A study have shown 2 grams of L-Glutamine increased growth hormones by over 400%.


    Glutamine may serve to boost your immune system. For bodybuilders, this is important since heavy workouts tend to greatly deplete Glutamine levels. (Glutamine is a primary energy source for your immune system.)


    Glutamine is one of the most important nutrients for your intestines. It has the ability to 'repair a leaky gut' by maintaining the structural integrity of the bowels.


    Bet you didn't know this: It can even cure ulcers! Studies have found that 1.6 grams of Glutamine a day had a 92% cure rate in 4 weeks.



    source: http://www.bodybuildingforyou.com/supplements-reviews/glutamine-side-effects-benefits.htm
     
  4. HyPe

    HyPe Well-Known Member

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    thanks for that informative post. Still pretty undecided. I'm trying to find out what else i shoudl take as my current supplement is only whey and i've heard a lot about glutamine, glucosamine etc.
     
  5. dledeaux

    dledeaux Well-Known Member

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    Glucosamine is a horse of a different color. Glucosamine is used for helping to rebuild cartilage. It's an herb and some people swear by it.
     
  6. rubberbandman

    rubberbandman Well-Known Member

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    glucosamine is not an herb. it is a chemical that has both protein and carbohydrate portions and a common source of it is shellfish.
     
  7. taffer

    taffer Well-Known Member

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    of course the info above is going to be in favor of gluatmine, they are trying to sell it!!

    90% of glutamine is destroyed in the gut, the anything that remains is used for gluconeogenisis
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    The effects of high-dose glutamine ingestion on weightlifting performance.

    Antonio J, Sanders MS, Kalman D, Woodgate D, Street C.

    Sports Science Laboratory, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716, USA.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if high-dose glutamine ingestion affected weightlifting performance. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 6 resistance-trained men (mean +/- SE: age, 21.5 +/- 0.3 years; weight, 76.5 +/- 2.8 kg(-1)) performed weightlifting exercises after the ingestion of glutamine or glycine (0.3 g x kg(-1)) mixed with calorie-free fruit juice or placebo (calorie-free fruit juice only). Each subject underwent each of the 3 treatments in a randomized order. One hour after ingestion, subjects performed 4 total sets of exercise to momentary muscular failure (2 sets of leg presses at 200% of body weight, 2 sets of bench presses at 100% of body weight). There were no differences in the average number of maximal repetitions performed in the leg press or bench press exercises among the 3 groups. These data indicate that the short-term ingestion of glutamine does not enhance weightlifting performance in resistance-trained men.


    The effect of free glutamine and peptide ingestion on the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis in man.

    van Hall G, Saris WH, van de Schoor PA, Wagenmakers AJ.

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. RH01769@RH.DK

    The present study investigated previous claims that ingestion of glutamine and of protein-carbohydrate mixtures may increase the rate of glycogen resynthesis following intense exercise. Eight trained subjects were studied during 3 h of recovery while consuming one of four drinks in random order. Drinks were ingested in three 500 ml boluses, immediately after exercise and then after 1 and 2 h of recovery. Each bolus of the control drink contained 0.8 g x kg(-1) body weight of glucose. The other drinks contained the same amount of glucose and 0.3 g x kg(-1) body weight of 1) glutamine, 2) a wheat hydrolysate (26% glutamine) and 3) a whey hydrolysate (6.6% glutamine). Plasma glutamine, decreased by approximately 20% during recovery with ingestion of the control drink, no changes with ingestion of the protein hydrolysates drinks, and a 2-fold increase with ingestion of the free glutamine drinks. The rate of glycogen resynthesis was not significantly different in the four tests: 28 +/- 5, 26 +/- 6, 33 +/- 4, and 34 +/- 3 mmol glucosyl units x kg(-1) dry weight muscle x h(-1) for the control, glutamine, wheat- and whey hydrolysate ingestion, respectively. It is concluded that ingestion of a glutamine/carbohydrate mixture does not increase the rate of glycogen resynthesis in muscle. Glycogen resynthesis rates were higher, although not statistically significant, after ingestion of the drink containing the wheat (21 +/- 8%) and whey protein hydrolysate (20 +/- 6%) compared to ingestion of the control and free glutamine drinks, implying that further research is needed on the potential protein effect.



    Effect of glutamine supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults.

    Candow DG, Chilibeck PD, Burke DG, Davison KS, Smith-Palmer T.

    College of Kinesiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of oral glutamine supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults. A group of 31 subjects, aged 18-24 years, were randomly allocated to groups (double blind) to receive either glutamine (0.9 g x kg lean tissue mass(-1) x day(-1); n = 17) or a placebo (0.9 g maltodextrin x kg lean tissue mass(-1) x day(-1); n = 14 during 6 weeks of total body resistance training. Exercises were performed for four to five sets of 6-12 repetitions at intensities ranging from 60% to 90% 1 repetition maximum (1 RM). Before and after training, measurements were taken of 1 RM squat and bench press strength, peak knee extension torque (using an isokinetic dynamometer), lean tissue mass (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) and muscle protein degradation (urinary 3-methylhistidine by high performance liquid chromatography). Repeated measures ANOVA showed that strength, torque, lean tissue mass and 3-methylhistidine increased with training (P < 0.05), with no significant difference between groups. Both groups increased their 1 RM squat by approximately 30% and 1 RM bench press by approximately 14%. The glutamine group showed increases of 6% for knee extension torque, 2% for lean tissue mass and 41% for urinary levels of 3-methylhistidine. The placebo group increased knee extension torque by 5%, lean tissue mass by 1.7% and 3-methylhistidine by 56%. We conclude that glutamine supplementation during resistance training has no significant effect on muscle performance, body composition or muscle protein degradation in young healthy adults.


    Effect of glutamine and protein supplementation on exercise-induced decreases in salivary IgA.

    Krzywkowski K, Petersen EW, Ostrowski K, Link-Amster H, Boza J, Halkjaer-Kristensen J, Pedersen BK.

    The Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, Rigshospitalet, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.

    Postexercise immune impairment has been linked to exercise-induced decrease in plasma glutamine concentration. This study examined the possibility of abolishing the exercise-induced decrease in salivary IgA through glutamine supplementation during and after intense exercise. Eleven athletes performed cycle ergometer exercise for 2 h at 75% of maximal oxygen uptake on 3 separate days. Glutamine (a total of 17.5 g), protein (a total of 68.5 g/6.2 g protein-bound glutamine), and placebo supplements were given during and up to 2 h after exercise. Unstimulated, timed saliva samples were obtained before exercise and 20 min, 140 min, 4 h, and 22 h postexercise. The exercise protocol induced a decrease in salivary IgA (IgA concentration, IgA output, and IgA relative to total protein). The plasma concentration of glutamine was decreased by 15% 2 h postexercise in the placebo group, whereas this decline was abolished by both glutamine and protein supplements.None of the supplements, however, was able to abolish the decline in salivary IgA. This study does not support that postexercise decrease in salivary IgA is related to plasma glutamine concentrations.


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    Should I Spend my Hard-Earned Money on Glutamine or Hookers?

    .... A high protein diet provides a big whack of glutamine as it is. In fact, if you follow standard bodybuilding protein recommendations, about 10% of your total dietary protein intake is composed of glutamine (milk proteins are composed of somewhere between 3 � 10% glutamine while meat is composed of about 15% glutamine). This means that a high protein diet (400g/day) already provides me with about 40g of glutamine.

    � While the theorists still cling to the idea that since glutamine helps clinical stress, it might help with exercise stress, it�s important to note that exercise stress has got nothin� on surgery, cancer, sepsis, burns, etc. For example, when compared with downhill running or weight lifting, urinary nitrogen loss is 15x (1400%) greater in minor surgery, 25x (2400%) greater in major surgery, and 33x (3200%) greater in sepsis. When it comes to the immune response, it�s about 9x (800%) greater with surgery. When it comes to metabolic increase, it�s 7x (600%) greater with burn injury, and when it comes to creatine kinase release; it�s about 2x (100%) greater with surgery. As I said, exercise has got nothin� on real, clinical stress. It�s like trying to compare the damage inflicted by a peashooter and that inflicted by a rocket launcher.

    � The major studies examining glutamine supplementation in otherwise healthy weightlifters have shown no effect. In the study by Candow et al (2001), 0.9g of supplemental glutamine/kg/day had no impact on muscle performance, body composition, and protein degradation. Folks, that's 90g per day for some lifters.

    � The majority of the studies using glutamine supplementation in endurance athletes have shown little to no measurable benefit on performance or immune function.

    � And with respect to glycogen replenishment in endurance athletes, it's interesting to note that the first study that looked at glycogen resynthesis using glutamine missed a couple of things. Basically, the study showed that after a few glycogen depleting hours of cycling at a high percentage of VO2 max interspersed with very intense cycle sprints that were supramaximal, a drink containing 8g of glutamine replenished glycogen to the same extent as a drink containing 61g of carbohydrate.

    The problem was that during the recovery period, a constant IV infusion of labeled glucose was given (i.e., a little bit of glucose was given to both groups by IV infusion). While this isn't too big of a deal on its own since the infusion only provided a couple of grams of glucose, the other problem is that during glycogen depleting exercise, a lot of alanine, lactate, and other gluconeogenic precursors are released from the muscle.

    What this means is that there's a good amount of glucose that will be formed after such exercise, glucose that will be made in the liver from the gluconeogenic precursors and that will travel to the muscle to replenish glycogen. Therefore, without a placebo group that receives no calories, carbohydrates, or glutamine, we have no idea of knowing whether or not the placebo would have generated the same amount of glycogen replenishment as the glutamine group or the glutamine plus carbohydrate group. To say it another way, perhaps there's a normal glycogen replenishment curve that was unaffected by any of the treatments.

    � And finally, with respect to the claims that glutamine might increase cell swelling/volume (something I once believed was a reality), we decided to test this theory out in our lab using multifrequency bioelectric impedance analysis as well as magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The pilot data that's kicking around has demonstrated that glutamine supplementation has no effect on total body water, intracellular fluid volumes, or extracellular fluid volumes (as measured by mBIA) and has no effect on muscle volume (as measured by nMRS)...

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    Oxidation of glutamine by the splanchnic bed in humans.

    Haisch M, Fukagawa NK, Matthews DE.

    Departments of Medicine and Chemistry, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405, USA.

    [1,2-(13)C(2)]glutamine and [ring-(2)H(5)]phenylalanine were infused for 7 h into five postabsorptive healthy subjects on two occasions. On one occasion, the tracers were infused intravenously for 3.5 h and then by a nasogastric tube for 3.5 h. The order of infusion was reversed on the other occasion. From the plasma tracer enrichment measurements at plateau during the intravenous and nasogastric infusion periods, we determined that 27 +/- 2% of the enterally delivered phenylalanine and 64 +/- 2% of the glutamine were removed on the first pass by the splanchnic bed. Glutamine flux was 303 +/- 8 micromol. kg(-1). h(-1). Of the enterally delivered [(13)C]glutamine tracer, 73 +/- 2% was recovered as exhaled CO(2) compared with 58 +/- 1% of the intravenously infused tracer. The fraction of the enterally delivered tracer that was oxidized specifically on the first pass by the splanchnic bed was 53 +/- 2%, comprising 83% of the total tracer extracted. From the appearance of (13)C in plasma glucose, we estimated that 7 and 10% of the intravenously and nasogastrically infused glutamine tracers, respectively, were converted to glucose. The results for glutamine flux and first-pass extraction were similar to our previously reported values when a [2-(15)N]glutamine tracer [Matthews DE, Morano MA, and Campbell RG, Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 264: E848-E854, 1993] was used. The results of [(13)C]glutamine tracer disposal demonstrate that the major fate of enteral glutamine extraction is for oxidation and that only a minor portion is used for gluconeogenesis.


    Oxidation of glutamic acid by the splanchnic bed in humans.

    Battezzati A, Brillon DJ, Matthews DE.

    Department of Medicine, Cornell University Medical College, New York, New York 10021, USA.

    [1,2-13C2]glutamate and [ring-2H5]phenylalanine were infused for 7 h into postabsorptive healthy subjects on two occasions. The tracer infusion was by the intravenous route for 3.5 h and by the nasogastric route for 3.5 h. The order of tracer infusion routes was switched between the two occasions. From the plasma tracer enrichment measurements at plateau during the intravenous and enteral infusion periods, we determined that 33 +/- 3% of the enterally delivered phenylalanine and 96 +/- 1% of the glutamate were removed on the first pass by the splanchnic bed; 78 +/- 3% of the enterally delivered [13C]glutamate tracer was recovered as exhaled CO2 compared with 79 +/- 2% of the intravenously infused tracer. The fraction of the enterally delivered tracer that was sequestered specifically on the first pass by the splanchnic bed was 75 +/- 2%. These results verify the previously reported large uptake of [15N]glutamate by the splanchnic bed [Matthews et al. Am. J. Physiol. 264 (Endocrinol. Metab. 27): E848-E854, 1993] and demonstrate that the uptake of tracer is not due to an artifactual loss of the 15N tracer by reversible transamination but to glutamate uptake for oxidation.
     
  8. Brian Golden

    Brian Golden Well-Known Member

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    Where would I be able to get information on exactly how much glutamine is present in different foods?
     

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